Some letters, like“q” and“c”, are totally absent from Gregg; there’s no sound for “c” besides those already represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you can find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that require a mix of letters when you look at the Roman alphabet, but can each be written by having a letter that is single Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six symbols that are complex along with seven brief ligatures, is rendered with two quick shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to make the journey to the nugget that is phonetic of word: “bed” is created as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another ten percent associated with note-taker’s time.
However the biggest effect from Gregg shorthand originates from its systematic method of abbreviation. By way of example, nearly every page in Gregg, authored by it self, represents a typical term. Most are employed for a few words that are different according to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” In this manner, almost 100 of the most extremely typical terms in English is rendered in a solitary swing. Likewise, most typical English terms have actually a spelling that is abbreviated of or two shots. The Gregg version that is elegant of,” for example, stands for “bring” and it is printed in an immediate. Right Here it really is once more:
And, since 60 % of talked English is made up of about 600 of the typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge quickening Gregg. “Brief type” is really a term that is technical Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and most likely increase their speed that is writing to be certainly fast—like the rest of the couple of Gregg-powered court reporters when you look at the federal courts whom remove testimony at significantly more than 200 terms per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of common abbreviations.
That sounds difficult unless you understand that your mind is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, the majority of that you simply discovered naturally as you required them. Gregg is not any various. Additionally the Gregg variations have reached least more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
Nevertheless the form that is brief a lot more than a straightforward abbreviation, it is the distillation regarding the fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose a lot more than is important to know it later on. Making use of this concept, a huge number of long, Latinate words are reduced to three or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types were particularly essential in the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One approach that is especially fertile abbreviation in Gregg may be the utilization of solitary letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, based on whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters may be either attached to or detached through the term. For instance, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally as with “grandiloquent,” and sometimes even “granular” (and this can be written “g” above “l-r.”)
Having said that, an attached “k” at the start of a term could be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” so “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and it is the quick type for Congress. But a detached “k” written above a term may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written over a “b”, for instance, is read “contrib” and it is the quick kind for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much the exact same with suffixes. A detached “g” at the finish of a term is short for “gram,” as with “program.” A detached “k” is short for “ical,” as in “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the spot of “ology,” as with “biology.”
These kinds also can be added together to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is created “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” This way, very long, complex terms are paid down to 2 or 3 fast flicks associated with pen, yet stay entirely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept take into account about 50 % of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not just will be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you will find less of those to create.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous typical expressions can be dashed off in some shots without ever raising the pen through the web web page. As an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three typical terms, all of that could be written individually with just one letter: “i,” written with a brief, right, upward swing that slopes off to the right, represents “it;” “l,” a lengthy, horizontal, upward-facing bend, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be.” Phrasing enables you to join all three of those letters in one single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Listed here is “it is supposed to be” regarding the line that is first with “We have been” below it:
And you will find literally tens of thousands of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Above all, unlike quick types, they don’t need memorization that is much they’re the merchandise of some easy guidelines.
because of the time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from their head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into nearly every college, company and courthouse in the united states. While he ended up being fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put out hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, study guides, mags, and shorthand versions of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a commercial infrastructure of official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of most shorthand that is professional. You needed a certificate from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words per minute if you wanted to be an executive secretary. In the event that you desired to be considered a court reporter, you had to show you can compose an astonishing 225 terms each and every minute with a lot better than 98 per cent accuracy. Completely, millions of people passed away through Gregg training and also the Gregg certification system.
For pretty much a hundred years, Gregg ended up being a part that is essential of culture. Because recently as the 1970s, virtually every twelfth grade in the nation taught Gregg. Truly, every company school & most universities offered Gregg-certified shorthand courses. But Gregg’s decrease started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, soon after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices within the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though you may still find a a small number of “pen authors” into the federal court system). The Dictaphone along with other recording products made note that is verbatim less much less essential in any office. Plus some people say improvements in women’s rights additionally played a task into the decrease of Gregg. In a period if they had been rejected professions in industries just like the legislation or medicine, the smartest, many skilled females usually wound up as secretaries or professional assistants and became gifted shorthand professionals. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.
The death that is real for Gregg, though, ended up being the arrival regarding the pc within the 1980s. Also high-level professionals no much much longer dictated letters for their secretaries; they penned them by themselves on their desktop computers. Businesses which used to own ratings of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their steno pools totally. Today, i am perhaps perhaps perhaps not alert to any school that is high teaches Gregg. It is extremely difficult to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in new york, where Gregg article writers continue to be prized by some white glove legislation organizations. The book that is only posted because of the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill may be the Gregg handbook, an workplace guide which has no reference to shorthand.
But, as a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a skill that is fundamental reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has not been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a vintage Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even although you simply discover the rules, Gregg will most likely increase your note using rate. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is quite normal to achieve rates of 100 terms a moment or even more. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the ninjaessays company twenty-first Century technology regarding the smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. And even though, for quick stretches, i could compose 120 terms each minute, the American that is average now at a lot more than 150 words a moment, therefore one thing is inevitably lost into the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need certainly to worry. In most cases, when I bypass to writing the storyline, I am able to depend on my handwritten notes for brief quotes and history information. Nevertheless when we need an extended, verbatim quote, I am able to make use of my records as some sort of index to get the right area of the meeting, and touch there with my pen to know the playback. You can forget associated with dance that is forward/reverse a electronic recorder when it’s time for you to transcribe. It’s an almost perfect system.